© Marcel Burkhardt
Martinez, N., L. Jenni, E. Wyss & N. Zbinden (2010)
Habitat structure versus food abundance: the importance of sparse vegetation for the common redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus.
J. Ornithol. 151: 297–307
As many other birds breeding in agricultural areas, the common redstart declined strongly in many Central European countries over the last 60 years. The destruction of traditionally managed orchards, an important breeding habitat in Central Europe, is a relevant cause. An additional factor for the decline of this species could be the intensified management of the ground vegetation in orchards through reducing food availability and lowering prey detectability and accessibility. In this study we examined the importance of surfaces with sparse vegetation for the location of redstart territories and for foraging. To validate the results of these field studies we made habitat-choice experiments in aviaries with captive birds. Territories occupied by redstarts in orchards of north western Switzerland contained a significantly higher proportion of surfaces with sparse vegetation than unoccupied control sites. Redstarts made almost five times more hunting flights into experimentally established ruderal vegetation strips than into adjacent unmown meadows. No difference was observed when the meadow was freshly mown. Vegetation height and the proportion of open ground surface correctly predicted the vegetation type for hunting in 77% of the cases. Experiments in aviaries offering two types of sparse vegetation and a dense meadow supported the results of the field experiments. Even a four-fold increase of the food abundance in the meadow did not lead to a noticeable change in preference for the sparse vegetation types. For the conservation of the common redstart, not only traditionally managed orchards with tall trees with cavities should be preserved but also areas with sparse vegetation should be favored.
Keywords>Orchard, habitat structure, foraging, farmland, Phoenicurus phoenicurus.